OCP Builder Images

An overview of the building process of CI images and productized images.

Many components of OpenShift Container Platform 4 are tested and released as container images. When a pull request for a component repository is created, a CI job builds any container images for the component using the code in the PR. We call these images CI images. When OCP is released as a product, component container images are built by the ART team using OSBS. We call these images productized images. In order to ensure that tests for pull requests give high fidelity signal for the final product, we ensure that the build process of the CI images closely mirrors that of the productized images. This document overviews the build processes of CI and productized images.

CI Images

CI images are built as configured on the repository for ci-operator. Take cluster-etcd-operator (branch release-4.6) for an example:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
base_images:
  base:
    name: "4.6"
    namespace: ocp
    tag: base
  ocp_builder_rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6:
    name: builder
    namespace: ocp
    tag: rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6
images:
- dockerfile_path: Dockerfile.rhel7
  from: base
  inputs:
    ocp_builder_rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6:
      as:
      - registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6
  to: cluster-etcd-operator

This build uses a build manifest at Dockerfile.rhel7 in the repository, which looks like:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
FROM registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6 AS builder
#skip other instructions
RUN make build --warn-undefined-variables

FROM registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/4.6:base
COPY --from=builder /go/src/github.com/openshift/cluster-etcd-operator/bindata/bootkube/bootstrap-manifests /usr/share/bootkube/manifests/bootstrap-manifests/
#skip other instructions

When the CI image is built, the images in FROM directives of Dockerfile.rhel7 are replaced according to the ci-operator configuration above. Entries in images.inputs declare a mapping of image name to pull specification for replacement. In this example:

  • registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6 is replaced by the image named ocp_builder_rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6, which is imported in base_images from registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6. This is colloquially known as the builder image.
  • registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/4.6:base is replaced by the image named base, which is imported in base_images from registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/4.6:base. This is colloquially known as the base image.

Productized Images

Build configurations for productized images are stored in the ocp-build-data repository. For example, images/cluster-etcd-operator.yml in the openshift-4.6 branch defines the build of the productized image for the 4.6 cluster-etcd-operator.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
content:
  source:
    dockerfile: Dockerfile.rhel7
    git:
      branch:
        target: release-{MAJOR}.{MINOR}
      url: git@github.com:openshift-priv/cluster-etcd-operator.git
from:
  builder:
  - stream: golang
  member: openshift-enterprise-base

The above snippet defines

  • where to get the build manifest: Dockerfile.rhel7 in the release-{MAJOR}.{MINOR} branch of the git@github.com:openshift-priv/cluster-etcd-operator.git repository. Note: the variables in the branch name (release-{MAJOR}.{MINOR}) are resolved by group.yml in the same branch of images/cluster-etcd-operator.yml. In the example, it is release-4.6.

  • how to replace the images in FROM directives of the build manifest: registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-4.6 is replaced by golang and registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/4.6:base is by openshift-enterprise-base. golang is configured in streams.yml (see the following snippet) and openshift-enterprise-base is built out of openshift-enterprise-base.yml.

     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    
    golang:
      image: openshift/golang-builder:rhel_8_golang_1.15
      upstream_image: registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-1.15-openshift-{MAJOR}.{MINOR}
    
    golang-1.14:
      image: openshift/golang-builder:rhel_8_golang_1.14
      upstream_image: registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-golang-openshift-{MAJOR}.{MINOR}
    
    rhel:
      image: openshift/ose-base:rhel8.2.els.rhel
      upstream_image: registry.ci.openshift.org/ocp/builder:rhel-8-base-openshift-{MAJOR}.{MINOR}
    

    The ART team mirrors all images, such as golang, golang-1.14, and rhel defined in streams.yml, to registry.ci.openshift.org. The upstream_image field defines the reference of the mirrored image. Those images are colloquially known as the ART equivalent images to ensure CI images are built from the exact same images as productized images.

Ensuring Identical Image Builds

While the CI and productized image builds are configured in two separate places, a number of automatic processes exist to ensure that the container images built in both environments are identical. Automation enforces that the same build manifest (Dockerfile) is used to define the image in both systems. Furthermore, automation also ensures that the builder images and base images that are used in CI are identical to those used by ART when building productized container images in OSBS. Therefore, with identical container build manifests and input container images, identical builds run in CI and the productized environment.

Moreover, a developer can build the same container image locally as well if the image build tool such as docker or podman has permission to pull the images used in the build manifest. The images in ocp namespace are open to all authenticated users.

Determining Go Versions

In the above example, the build of cluster-etcd-operator uses Go 1.15 to build the image, as configured in streams.yml. When the version of Go used to build OCP changes, the ART team will modify the version configured in ocp-build-data centrally for the whole product at once. Then, automation will create pull requests to update Dockerfiles in component repositories and their CI configuration.

First, a pull request is filed to the component repository, where it modifies the FROM directive in Dockerfile. CI jobs on this pull request will reflect the use of the new Go version and repository administrators are expected to monitor the change, merging it if appropriate or landing changes as necessary to merge the change themselves. After code freeze in the release, any un-updated FROM entries become blocker bugs for the release. If an OCP component cannot migrate to the new toolchain version, the owner has to get the approval from the architecture team and then communicate with the ART team. In this case, the ART team will modify the builder image of the component in ocp-build-data and the created PR to the component repository can be closed. For example, cluster-etcd-operator has to use golang-1.14. images/cluster-etcd-operator.yml will has the following stanza:

1
2
3
from:
  builder:
  - stream: golang-1.14

Second, a pull request is filed to the openshift/release repository, where it modifies the CI configuration to allow builds with the new Go version to be as efficient as possible. This PR is merged automatically.

The productized images are always built with the builder images defined in ocp-build-data, no matter whether component authors merge pull requests that change FROM entries.

As two pull requests are created to reflect changes in the Go toolchain, it is possible for them to merge in either order. The CI system will be self-consistent and correct in either case. When only one of the changes (to FROM entries in the component repository and to ci-operator configuration in openshift/release) has merged, container image builds in CI will use the correct Go toolchain (defined by the builder image defined in Dockerfile), but will simply be less efficient than they would be when both pull requests merge. This intermediate state will have an inconsistency between the base_images entry in ci-operator configuration and the FROM entries in the repository but this may be ignored.

Best Practice

  • Merge the PR to the component repo as soon as possible to use the new version of Go toolchain.
  • Do not manually override the replacement rules of the builder and base images in CI configuration and let automation do its job.
  • Determine which base and builder images your component builds with in the ocp-build-data repository.

Controlling Go Versions In Component Repositories

In general, it is strongly suggested that a repository should use the same version of Golang to build components as the centrally-controlled ART builder image uses. For users who need some non-standard version of Go or who must change the version of Go in the component repository while also changing other content in the repository, there is a mechanism for configuring the build_root in a file stored at the root of the repository. A valid .ci-operator.yaml file must exist in the repository and the ci-operator configuration must set build_root.from_repository: true as per the documentation. When transitioning a repository from central control of the Go version to in-repo control, changes must also happen to the ocp-build-data repository and the transition must be approved by ART.